A Framework for Effective Teaching and Learning
- Clear learning targets at an appropriate level of rigor.
- Instruction intentionally designed so learners can meet the targets.
- Evidence of learning evaluated using clear criteria.
This component is supported from recent research by John Hattie. Hattie synthesized findings from 80,000 studies involving 300 million students to identify the impact of more than 250 influences on student achievement. His analysis of the impact is expressed in effect sizes – the higher the effect size the greater the potential impact on student achievement. Effect sizes between .4 and .7 are likely to accelerate student achievement and those of .7 or above have the potential to considerably increase student achievement.
What we’re learning –
Without structures and strategies to build student ownership of learning, students will struggle to reach proficiency and teachers will work harder than their students. Student ownership is necessary to create learners who know — what they know now, what they do not know yet, what they need to advocate for, and how to advocate for it.
In a learner-centered classroom, students have a learned belief that they can succeed as learners (students receive personalized support, aren’t penalized when they don’t meet the target on the first try, can point to experiences when persistence paid off for themselves and others). Students see they can “control their academic outcomes by the strategies they employ, effort they exert, and resources they engage” (Wigfield and Wagner, 2005).
Evidence of impact: Self-efficacy (effect size .93), effort (effect size .77), persistence and engagement (effect size .56)
In a learner-centered classroom, students:
- Know the targets they are expected to reach and what it looks like to reach them.
Evidence of impact: Learning goals vs. no goals (effect size .68)
- Learn how to evaluate their own progress in reaching learning targets.
Evidence of impact: Evaluation and reflection (effect size .75), strategy monitoring (effect size .58), student expectations (effect size 1.33)
- Learn how to make and carry out a personal plan to reach learning goals and targets.
Evidence of impact: Metacognitive strategies (effect size .60), goal intentions (effect size .48), self-verbalizing and self-questioning (effect size .55), strategy monitoring (effect size .58)
In a learner-centered classroom, teachers use strategies that enable students to believe they can succeed as learners. Teachers:
- Explicitly teach students how to learn (model and scaffold skill development in personal goal setting, planning, time management, self-pacing, taking initiative). Teachers gradually give students more opportunities to control their own learning paths using the skills they’ve learned.
Evidence of impact: Scaffolding (effect size .82), seeking help (effect size .72), self-regulation strategies (effect size .52), elaboration and organization (effect size .75), study skills (effect size .60)
- Involve students in establishing classroom routines and structures that help everyone learn and participate.
Evidence of impact: Strong classroom cohesion (effect size .44), positive peer influences (effect size .53), decreasing disruptive behavior (effect size .34)
- Provide descriptive feedback throughout the learning process.
Evidence of impact: Feedback (effect size .70)
- Explicitly teach students how to self-assess.
Evidence of impact: Evaluation and reflection (effect size .75), effort (effect size .77), strategy monitoring (effect size .58)
- Provide ample opportunities for students to learn independently and from each other.
Evidence of impact: Seeking help from peers (effect size .83), reciprocal teaching (effect size .74)
In a learner-centered school, teachers share the learned belief that through their collective action, they can positively influence student outcomes, including those students who are disengaged, unmotivated, and/or disadvantaged (Donohoo, 2017). When teams of teachers experience success and attribute their success to causes within their control, they learn to believe they can repeat that success. They learn to believe they can collectively meet challenges, solve problems, and change what they do individually and together to increase student achievement.
Evidence of impact: Collective teacher efficacy has the greatest potential impact on student achievement of any other influence analyzed by Hattie, including students’ socio-economic status – an effect size of 1.57.
Learn more —
- Personalized Learning with Matt and Courtney: Talking through the Do’s and Don’t Do’s of Learner-centered Proficiency-based Education (a Maine podcast)
- Untangling terms – Definitions from several sources:
Explore Key Concepts —
- Student Engagement and Independence
- Teacher-centered vs. Learner-centered Paradigms (pdf)
- Student Self-assessment & Goal Setting
Self-assessment helps students develop the ability to look forward, look now, look back, look in, and look out. To set goals effectively relies on the ability to skillfully self-assess and then, given time, resources, knowledge of self, content, context and direction, set targets that are doable with concerted effort.
- Strategies and Structures to Create a Learner-Centered Culture
- Six Exemplars of Student-Centered Practice (pdf)
- Standard Operating Procedures
- Code of Cooperation Implementation Rubric (pdf)
- The Power of Collective Efficacy (link)